Biopolym. Cell. 2018; 34(2):97-106.
Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics
Cytogenetic disorders in Triticum aestivum L. cells affected by radionu-clide contamination of water reservoirs in the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP
1Yakymchuk R. A.
  1. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, NAS of Ukraine
    31/17, Vasylkivska, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03022


Aim. To study frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in the cells of Triticum aestivum L. root meristem under a prolonged effect of radionuclide contamination of water reser-voirs in the near alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP (ChNPP). Methods. The seeds of two soft winter wheat varieties were treated with samples from water reservoirs in the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP. Anatelophase analysis of chromosome aberrations in crushed cytological prepa-rations of apical meristem of primary rootlets was used. Results. Radionuclide contamination of water reservoirs in the near alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP causes an increase in the aberrant cell frequency and mitosis disorders by 1.6-4.2 times. The highest level of cytogenetic activity is typical for radionuclide contamination of reservoir-cooler of ChNPP, Semyhodskyi backwater, drainage-way № 3 of ChNPP and Lake Hlyboke. Their spectrum type is mostly represented by single and paired acentric fragments, bridges and lagging chromosomes. Conclusion. A prolonged effect of ionizing radiation of radionuclide contaminations of water reservoirs of the near alien-ation zone of ChNPP is characterized by a high cytogenetic activity. The correlation between the chromosome aberration level and the scope of specific radionuclide activity of water reservoirs was not found, which may prove the induction of cytogenetic disorders under the radiation effect in the low-rate range. The increased level of aneuploid cells and those with multiple chromosome aberrations confirms a genetic danger for the organisms in water reservoirs even with a low spe-cific activity of radionuclide contamination.
Keywords: Aberrations, cytogenetic disorders, radionuclide, low-rate radiation.


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