Biopolym. Cell. 1987; 3(1):3-17.
Antisense RNAs: a novel mechanism for the regulation of gene expression
1Shved A. D., 1Zolotukhin S. B., 1Matsuka G. Kh.
  1. Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR
    Kiev, USSR


The data on natural mechanisms for antisense regulation of gene expression are summarized. The examples of experimentally tested regulatory activities of various antisense RNAs are also reviewed.


[1] Simons RW, Kleckner N. Translational control of IS10 transposition. Cell. 1983;34(2):683-91.
[2] Cesareni G, Banner DW. Regulation of plasmid copy number by complementary RNAs. Trends Biochem Sci. 1985; 10(8):303-6.
[3] Tomizawa J, Itoh T, Selzer G, Som T. Inhibition of ColE1 RNA primer formation by a plasmid-specified small RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78(3):1421-5.
[4] Tomizawa J. Control of ColE1 plasmid replication: initial interaction of RNA I and the primer transcript is reversible. Cell. 1985;40(3):527-35.
[5] Tomizawa J, Som T. Control of ColE1 plasmid replication: enhancement of binding of RNA I to the primer transcript by the Rom protein. Cell. 1984;38(3):871-8.
[6] Light J, Molin S. The sites of action of the two copy number control functions of plasmid R1. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;187(3):486-93.
[7] Light J, Molin S. Post-transcriptional control of expression of the repA gene of plasmid R1 mediated by a small RNA molecule. EMBO J. 1983;2(1):93-8.
[8] Womble DD, Dong X, Wu RP, Luckow VA, Martinez AF, Rownd RH. IncFII plasmid incompatibility product and its target are both RNA transcripts. J Bacteriol. 1984;160(1):28-35.
[9] Kumar CC, Novick RP. Plasmid pT181 replication is regulated by two countertranscripts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(3):638-42.
[10] Hoopes BC, McClure WR. A cII-dependent promoter is located within the Q gene of bacteriophage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(10):3134-8.
[11] Rezaian MA, Symons RH. Anti-sense regions in satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus form stable complexes with the viral coat protein gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14(8):3229-39.
[12] Spena A, Krause E, Dobberstein B. Translation efficiency of zein mRNA is reduced by hybrid formation between the 5'- and 3'-untranslated region. EMBO J. 1985;4(9):2153-8.
[13] Izant JG, Weintraub H. Inhibition of thymidine kinase gene expression by anti-sense RNA: a molecular approach to genetic analysis. Cell. 1984;36(4):1007-15.
[14] Izant JG, Weintraub H. Constitutive and conditional suppression of exogenous and endogenous genes by anti-sense RNA. Science. 1985;229(4711):345-52.
[15] McGarry TJ, Lindquist S. Inhibition of heat shock protein synthesis by heat-inducible antisense RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83(2):399-403.
[16] Kim SK, Wold BJ. Stable reduction of thymidine kinase activity in cells expressing high levels of anti-sense RNA. Cell. 1985;42(1):129-38.
[17] Harland R, Weintraub H. Translation of mRNA injected into Xenopus oocytes is specifically inhibited by antisense RNA. J Cell Biol. 1985;101(3):1094-9.
[18] Melton DA. Injected anti-sense RNAs specifically block messenger RNA translation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(1):144-8.
[19] Preiss A, Rosenberg UB, Kienlin A, Seifert E, J?ckle H. Molecular genetics of Krüppel, a gene required for segmentation of the Drosophila embryo. Nature. 1985 Jan 3-9;313(5997):27-32.
[20] Rosenberg UB, Preiss A, Seifert E, J?ckle H, Knipple DC. Production of phenocopies by Krüppel antisense RNA injection into Drosophila embryos. Nature. 1985 Feb 21-27;313(6004):703-6.
[21] Crowley TE, Nellen W, Gomer RH, Firtel RA. Phenocopy of discoidin I-minus mutants by antisense transformation in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1985;43(3 Pt 2):633-41.
[22] Mizuno T, Wurtzel ET, Inouye M. Osmoregulation of gene expression. II. DNA sequence of the envZ gene of the ompB operon of Escherichia coli and characterization of its gene product. J Biol Chem. 1982;257(22):13692-8.
[23] Inokuchi K, Mutoh N, Matsuyama S, Mizushima S. Primary structure of the ompF gene that codes for a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982;10(21):6957-68.
[24] Mizuno T, Chou MY, Inouye M. A comparative study on the genes for three porins of the Escherichia coli outer membrane. DNA sequence of the osmoregulated ompC gene. J Biol Chem. 1983;258(11):6932-40.
[25] Mizuno T., Chou M.-J., Inouye M. Regulation of gene expression by a small RNA transcript (micRNA) in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc. Jap. Acad. Sci. 1983; 59(10):335-8.
[26] Mizuno T, Chou MY, Inouye M. A unique mechanism regulating gene expression: translational inhibition by a complementary RNA transcript (micRNA). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81(7):1966-70.
[27] Coleman J, Green PJ, Inouye M. The use of RNAs complementary to specific mRNAs to regulate the expression of individual bacterial genes. Cell. 1984;37(2):429-36.
[28] Coleman J, Hirashima A, Inokuchi Y, Green PJ, Inouye M. A novel immune system against bacteriophage infection using complementary RNA (micRNA). Nature. 1985 Jun 13-19;315(6020):601-3.
[29] Farnham PJ, Abrams JM, Schimke RT. Opposite-strand RNAs from the 5' flanking region of the mouse dihydrofolate reductase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985;82(12):3978-82.
[30] Pestka S, Daugherty BL, Jung V, Hotta K, Pestka RK. Anti-mRNA: specific inhibition of translation of single mRNA molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81(23):7525-8.
[31] Ellison MJ, Kelleher RJ 3rd, Rich A. Thermal regulation of beta-galactosidase synthesis using anti-sense RNA directed against the coding portion of the mRNA. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(16):9085-7.
[32] Rubenstein JL, Nicolas JF, Jacob F. Nonsense RNA: a tool for specifically inhibiting the expression of a gene in vivo. C R Acad Sci III. 1984;299(8):271-4.